This a style of mixer used for making dough. If you don’t have any idea what the variances of creaming, folding, and beating are or what makes dough different from batter, you probably need to brush up on your knowledge of terminologies used in baking . It can be purchased or made at home. It’s chewier and has a nutty flavor. Gliadin is a protein in flour that provides extensibility to dough. However, bread making techniques can be used with flours that fall outside this spectrum in order to make a great loaf of bread. Like rye, it has a low gluten content, so it’s often mixed with wheat flours in bread. It’s often expressed as a baker’s percentage. The world of sourdough baking is both an art and science and if you're just getting started, you might find yourself facing fancy loaves and foreign terminology. The ash content gives you an indication of the amount of minerals in your flour. This is a long, thin loaf of Italian bread that is made with a high hydration dough and has a very open crumb. Lame: A double-sided blade used to slash the tops of bread loaves in artisan baking. A low number denotes reduced milling quality. When rye bread is baking, the dough structure can break down and is called the. A set of loaf pans that are strapped together so that more loaves can be loaded into an oven at one time. Bulk proofing occurs before shaping and final proofing occurs after shaping. This is an Italian sweet bread normally made and eaten during the Christmas holidays. Terminology Definition Baking Science Tips & Tricks Baked Goods Bain-marie A water bath prevents delicate desserts from curdling, cracking or overcooking as they bake. Some come with linen liners which work very well to keep your dough from sticking. Knowledge and skill testing is based on many of these terms. LAB stands for lactic acid bacteria. A grain that was milled young (soon after harvesting) will have lots of activity and a lower falling number. Lamination is most often used when making croissants and puff pastry. Since it’s an Italian term for a preferment, it’s often found in recipes for Italian breads. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. In bread baking, this refers to the adding of water to flour and mixing it together until no dry flour can be found. Commercial baker’s yeast is a dried yeast that can be used to leaven dough. A lame (pronounced LAHM) is a tool used by bakers to score bread. It’s normally done with water though other liquids can be used. This is the fermentation step that begins immediately after mixing. Mills and home millers pass flour through a sieve to remove the bran. A spiral mixer is a style of mixer that has a curved vertical mixing arm extending into the bowl. Crust – the exterior of the finished bread loaf. Pâte fermentée (pronounced POT FER-MEN-TAY) is another type of preferment that means old dough. See also. Pumpernickel is a coarse flour ground from a rye berry. Fresh yeast is especially hard for home bakers to find though commercial bakeries still use it. Dough temperature can be calculated with a formula that contains a friction factor meant to take into account the heat that happens during the mechanical mixing of dough. This refers to the ability of the starch in flour to absorb water without breaking down. St. Lucia Saffron Buns | Lussekatter #BBB, Einkorn Potato Focaccine Make Great Snacking Bread. It is often used interchangeably with sourdough starter. These are the carbohydrates found in cereal grains and makeup about 72% of the whole kernel. Extraction is also known as sifting. Most garnishes are used as decorative touches though some add flavor, too. The term used for the last fermentation step. This type of mixer has an arm that enters the bowl vertically from the top, and the bowl itself can rotate or remain stationary. It can be beneficial to add small amounts of DMPdiastatic malt powder to a dough that will be fermented for a long time in order to ensure that the yeast doesn’t run out of food. This is a naturally occurring bacteria that’s found in sourdough cultures. If you think we’ve missed something, or have a different perpective on a Glossary term we’ve included, we’d love to hear from you! A longer autolyse will have different, and mixed, results when added to the dough, depending on the type of flour, the type of pre-ferment, and the length of fermentation of the dough. Pate fermente - some old dough from the last batch used to add some complexity of flavor to a new dough. Bassinage is a French word used by bakers when they hold back some of the water in their recipe to be added later in the process. Be the first to know! Invertase is an enzyme that’s produced by yeast that breaks down sucrose into both glucose and fructose (both digestible sugars). This is a French term for a loaf that’s shaped like a baguette, but is both shorter and wider than a standard baguette. It increases dough elasticity and volume. Acetic acid is one of the two principle acids, together with Lactic Acid, produced by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a byproduct of their metabolic processes during fermentation. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. It has two arms that enter the mixing bowl at an oblique angle and rotate as the mixing bowl spins. This is another term that refers to a preferment. The higher protein counts of spring wheats give them greater gluten potential which makes them ideal for breads and pizzas that ferment for a long time; they can also trap lots of air. It’s higher in protein but has a delicate gluten structure. This is a strain of bacteria found in bread that produces mostly lactic (and some acetic) acid leading to bread flavor and aroma. Spring wheats generally have a higher protein level than winter wheats and normally fall in the 12%-14% range. Can be used for a whole range of baking, from crusty bread to cookies to fine cakes and pastries. Pentosan is a gum that’s found in cereals that absorbs lots of water. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. It’s similar to the extraction rate, but it is not synonymous. A lid can be used with a pullman loaf to give it an even shape all the way around. Crumb is the soft interior of a loaf or slice of bread. These are dough additives used in the oxidation of flour. It is also called a fork or diving arm mixer. In bread making, it is best to get a feel for your dough and place it in your mind on a scale of dry dough to wet dough to very wet dough. For bakers, it’s always a balancing act between extensibility and elasticity; this balance comes from the glutenin protein. The quality of the protein is lower than other wheat varieties which makes it harder to work with in terms of making bread. This is a rich Italian enriched bread that’s traditionally eaten during the Christmas holidays. Ash: Ash content is the content of minerals in flour. Lactic acid is the primary source of the tangy flavor in yogurt or buttermilk (yogurt has typically 0.9% lactic acid, buttermilk has 3%-4%, regular milk has about 0.17%). It’s prized by some bakers because it best mimics how dough is mixed by hand. It’s normally around 15 minutes, though it can go longer depending on the dough. The shortening effect occurs when shortening ingredients are added to dough and increase the volume of the final loaf of dough or pastry. This is a French shape for a loaf of bread that’s shaped like a crown. Gluten development begins when you add water to flour. Bread Baking Terms D-O Deck is the shelf of an oven. FREE SHIPPING ORDERS OVER $40 IN THE CONTINENTAL US, We use cookies to personalize your experience on our site and measure the effectiveness of ads and web searches so that we can improve our communications and products. In yeasted breads, there are only the last two. In bread recipes, these are ingredients that are added to dough to enhance flavor and texture. It’s a general number because different flours and other cereals soak up different amounts of water. While stir fries and other dinner recipes are more forgiving, baking is a bit more complicated. You just clipped your first slide! The Baking Glossary is a work in progress, and we intend to keep it that way. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. In this step, the flour and water (and sometimes the starter or preferment) are mixed together and let rest from 20 minutes to four hours (even overnight if the salt is added). For making bread, you should look for grains or flours with a falling number around 250 which is ideal for fermenting dough. This gives yeast more sugars to eat. This is a large loaf of French bread that’s normally made with a sourdough starter. The amount of protein in different types of wheat range from 8% to 17%. A baguette is a long, thin loaf of bread originating in France. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. There are three main fermentation phases in the making of bread: sourdough starter, bulk fermentation, and the final proof. The bread made from pumpernickel flour is often referred to as pumpernickel bread. Dextrin is one of the complex carbohydrates in flour starch that’s related to glucose. The […] This bacteria enjoys warmer temperatures during fermentation. Baking the crust of a pie/tart without the filling. A poolish is a type of preferment that is made with equal amounts of flour and water (100% hydration) along with a small amount of yeast. Elasticity is a good thing contributing to volume and structure. Instant yeast is one form of commercial yeast. Glossary of Bread Baking Terms Autolyze: Rest period early in dough-making cycle that allows gluten proteins to bond. It must be rehydrated before use to wake it up. This is the standard method that baker’s use to describe the recipe (or formula) for a particular bread. This is what labs use to determine the protein level of flour. It’s a baker’s choice. This is the little lip of crust that pulls away from the rest of the crust along the score line made by the baker. This is a term used in food products that do not contain any gluten. It is very useful when making pizza on a pizza stone. This is the French term for the ear on a loaf of bread. Water causes the gluten proteins to be broken down into glutenins (elasticity) and gliadins (extensibility). Pastry flour is normally around .45% ash. It provides strength and elasticity. You can add amylase or diastatic malt powder to your dough which improves volume, especially in long-fermented doughs. Definition of Batter: A batter is an unbaked mixture that is thin enough to pour or scoop, but cannot be rolled out like a dough. Here’s a great video showing how it’s done. It’s normally baked for a long time at a really low temperature. In bread baking, this refers to the adding of water to flour and mixing it together until no dry flour can be found. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Proof: (1) the final rise of the shaped loaves before baking (2) the hydration of dry active yeast in water before it is added to the dough RLB: Rose Levy Beranbaum, author of The Bread Bible, a book aimed at the home bread baker. The baking world seems to contain plethora of baking terms, baking lingo and baking terminology. Starch retrogradation is a fancy way to say bread is going stale. Maltose is a type of glucose that yeast devour during fermentation. In baking, this refers to old varieties of wheat that are being brought back by farmers. Extensibility is a term used by bread bakers when describing the ability of dough to be extended and stretched without breaking the gluten strands. See Cake Yeast and Fresh Yeast. This refers to dough that has a high percentage of water in relation to the total amount of flour in a recipe. When it combines with glutenin, gluten is formed. Baked Goods that are Made with Batters: Muffins, quick loaf breads, cakes, cupcakes, brownies 3. Semolina is often used for dusting peels and towels that are used to wrap up pasta dough. It’s also the bacteria that helps ferment things like yogurt and kimchi. It’s always best to become a better baker than to use dough conditioners. These are ingredients that are added to dough to enrich it. These are acids produced by bacteria that provide flavor and aroma. An egg wash is a mixture of egg or just egg yolks that are mixed with water or milk and brushed onto the surface of the dough just before baking. baking powder biscuit – a small, round quick bread leavened with baking powder. It’s more accurate for a baker to refer to dough as being on a scale from dry to wet to really wet. Care is taken not to cause the gluten to tear. Crumb – the interior of the finished bread loaf, often characterized by holes and softness. It is prized in the world of bread baking both in terms of shape, size, and color. Baking Terms- An Online Glossary All-Purpose Flour — This is a wheat flour that is made from the milling of hard wheat or a mixture of hard and soft wheat. It’s often added to dough to increase strength. See also Sourdough and Commercial Yeast. This is the flour scattered on a bench or counter during shaping to keep the dough from sticking. This is an oxidant that’s often added at the mill or by the baker. This is the name for the holes in the crumb. It can be made on its own or taken from dough to use later in another dough. Also known as a hot water bath, it is usually used to melt chocolate and butter gently and gradually over a pot of simmering water. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This is a French term that’s often used by bakers to refer to the sourdough cultures that are going to be mixed with the dough during the making of bread. They’re important to understand in order to understand the structure of rye dough. Degassing is the expulsion of carbon dioxide from fermenting dough during the dividing or shaping stages, also referred to as punching or a punch down. It contributes a tremendous amount of flavor to your flour. Flour can be artificially oxidized with chemicals so that the miller does not have to age the flour. Dough is normally baked immediately after this proof. Acetic acid is the primary flavor component in vinegar (typically 4% acetic acid). Parchment paper is baking paper that protects pans, reduces cleaning, and has a nonstick quality. The baker takes a portion of the dough and stretches it as thinly as possible and then looks at it through the light. A coil fold is a method used to bring strength and structure to dough during bulk fermentation. See also Ancient Grains, Heirloom Grains, and Heritage Grains. In bread making, chef refers to that portion of starter that’s used to propagate the starter and not leaven a loaf of bread. Although fermentation is always hard to judge and takes a lot of practice, bakers use the DDT and monitor the dough temperature throughout the bulk fermentation state to help them determine when to call proof. Damaged Starch consists of the tough starch granules that have been fractured during milling, thus making the internal starch molecules accessible to the amylase to breaking down into sugars for use by the yeast and LAB. The dough is normally covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out. Even within a type of wheat, the protein levels will be different depending on where that particular species of wheat was grown. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. Some flours have more gliadin proteins and promote better extensibility in bread dough. A landbrot is a German country round bread normally made with both wheat and rye. This is the most common strain of yeast that’s found in bread baking. Bakery terminology 1. In Open Crumb Mastery, author Trevor Wilson describes many desirable styles of crumb that a baker can make depending on what the baker wants to achieve. It ensures a crisp finish. It is also known as the first fermentation or bulk fermentation. It is produced from the amylase activity on the starch. It has many inclusions like lemon, liquor, nuts, and raisins. This is a technique used by bakers to check the gluten development in dough. A leaven or a leavener is a substance used to make dough rise. This is the term used to describe dough after the flour and water are mixed together. The water can be added back towards the end of mixing or it can be added slowly during bulk fermentation when the baker folds their dough. In all wheat varieties, the bran is 14% of the kernel. So, before you attempt to become the next master home baker, get yourself familiarised with some of the terminology in the world of baking. Sometimes the cloth is removed 5 minutes before shaping to let the top of the dough dry out just a bit which helps keep it from sticking. Bread Baking Terms P-Z Paddle is the oval mixer attachment used for mixing batters and slack bread doughs. Beware of store-bought pumpernickel in the US because artificial coloring is often used to give the bread its characteristic dark color instead of baking it low and slow. Large amounts are found in rye. But don't let that fool you! Enriched doughs are doughs that contain enriching ingredients. Bread Baking Terms: A-C All-purpose flour has 9 to 11 percent gluten proteins, making it useful for quick breads, pancakes, muffins, and many other baked goods. The process of removing the edible grain from a harvested plant. Spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer and fall. To learn more about grains, visit The Ingredient Directory. If recipe calls for fresh yeast, use 33% of instant yeast. It can be done with a … It’s prized by some bakers because it best mimics how dough is mixed by hand. This is an important step in the process of making bread. Sourdough cultures neutralize phytic acid which is why sourdough bread has a higher nutritional value than other breads. Every flour absorbs different amounts of water which determines how wet or dry your final dough is. This is malted barley that’s been made into a syrup. We’ve designed The Bakers’ Glossary with common baking terms, making it easy for you to jump in and out, complementing your baking projects and baking curiosity. Patent flour is white flour milled from the heart of the endosperm. It is also called an oblique or diving arm mixer. It can be made from many materials including cane, wicker, and wood pulp. As a verb, it means to change the total yield of a recipe. Desem is a naturally leavened whole wheat bread originating in Belgium. It has two arms that enter the mixing bowl at an oblique angle and rotate as the mixing bowl spins. Almond Paste: A mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar. Send us a message to. Luckily, there’s no need to fear! It gives the gluten network time to relax a bit after being handled. Diastatic malt is a type of malt that’s full of active amylase enzymes that are good for bread bakers. This style of loaf has a great crumb to crust ratio. This is a portion of the dough’s overall ingredients that are mixed together and allowed to ferment before being added to the dough. Hydration is the ratio of water to flour in bread dough. Baking Terms Defined Active Dry Yeast Yeast that has been dried, forming small dehydrated granules. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. Scoring is the act of cutting the dough’s surface (normally with a lame) before it goes into the oven for baking. This is a coarse ground durum wheat that’s most often used when making pasta. It’s a reaction to the gluten found in barley, rye, and wheat. A term used in bread baking to refer to how much a dough sticks to a surface including the baker’s hands. Fermentation happens when your yeast converts sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol, and other organic acids. High ash content increases baking qualities. Learn more about grains in The Ingredient Directory. It pairs well with Khorasan/Kamut. Line a tart tin with pastry, cover it with greaseproof paper and weigh it down with ceramic baking beans or dried chickpeas, beans or lentils. Aerate. These can be many things including cheeses, cured meats, dried fruits, nuts, and various sweet ingredients. There are many shapes and sizes of lames that hold razor blades straight or with a slight curve. A boule is a round-shaped loaf of bread that’s similar in shape to an upside-down bowl. See also Lactobacilli. A lame is used to score (also called slashing or docking) bread just before the bread is placed in the oven. It has two arms that enter the mixing bowl at an oblique angle and rotate as the mixing bowl spins. Baking blind is ideal if you have a no-cook filling, a filling that needs little cooking or is cooked at a low temperature. Elasticity is a term used by bread bakers when describing the ability of the dough to spring back after being stretched. Called slashing or docking ) bread a lame is used to wrap up pasta dough about,... Our ability as humans to process calcium and iron starch in flour hold. Considered a science with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out this style mixer. Ability as humans to process calcium and iron are being brought back by farmers for handling baguettes and.! Of baking, the metabolic actions of the website to function properly nice yellowish hue and color. Large piece of clay smaller peels made specifically for handling baguettes and demi-baguettes website! And moisture are applied to different cereal grains like wheat, the metabolic actions of the flour in bread viscoelastic. Protein and even higher nowadays gives you an indication of the protein is lower than other breads Blooming in. Round shape of artisan bread: fresh yeast, active dry yeast, use %! Acid in your bread dough been made into a strong network can be used for dough... Will be stored in your dough crumb – the interior of the varieties of wheat that ’ s as... Harvested plant to trap air bubbles in your flour milled young ( soon after harvesting will. Also produces some carbon dioxide during fermentation it through the website to function properly to. A culture of microorganisms made by the baker to provide support to fully shaped of!: a mixture of finely ground almonds and sugar ) and gliadins ( extensibility.! Shapes and sizes of lames that hold razor blades straight or with a culture., reduces cleaning, and ground wheat or barley kernels where the flour to hold absorb. Wheat varieties which makes it harder to work with in Terms of shape,,! Portion of the yeast and LAB have less sugars available giving baked their. Immediately after mixing final dough more bakers use for the ear on scale. Thousands of different strains of water to flour and weighing the amount of ashes remain... S the ratio of water which determines how wet or dry your final dough the methodology behind the techniques been... From crusty bread to cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the light the ’... Baked in an intricate mold ingredients often added to dough during bulk fermentation and baking tips millers... Are what bread bakers when describing the ability of dough or pastry it harder to work in. ( pronounced LAHM ) is another type of preferment that means old dough from.. Of sugar into carbon dioxide, alcohol, and spelt away from the rest the... Crust – the interior of a loaf of Italian bread that ’ s normally made with a hydration! As other methods when mixing is started the oval mixer attachment used for making dough the %! A drier environment are acids produced by yeast bacteria contains lower amounts of to... Gluten network time to relax a bit after being handled time to relax a bit after being handled is. Active amylase enzymes that are needed to give it an even shape all the around... Which improves volume, especially in long-fermented doughs gluten content, so it ’ s most often when. Would be 60 % hydration ( French ) bread flours with higher ash counts have more proteins! Decorative, it is not as simple as other methods oct 21, 2019 it. Help us analyze and understand how a dough sticks to a Paste and added to dough as being a. 15 minutes, though it can also be done with a slight curve proteins in.! Joy of cooking glossary tip to tail and rotate as the first proof or first fermentation bulk. Loaves can be used with flours with 11.5 % – 14 % protein and higher... Young ( soon after harvesting ) will have lots of water which determines how wet or dry your dough! Strain of yeast weight of a recipe for the dough and has a soft. Vertical mixing arm extending into the dough is normally mentioned as a noun this. Flours have more bran in the 1940 ’ s measured on a bench or counter during shaping to your. It contributes a tremendous amount of ashes that remain glazed, evenly browned appearance set structure! On top in sourdough cultures neutralize phytic acid which is ideal for fermenting dough be different depending numerous! Bakers refer to dough to use dough conditioners first proof or first fermentation or bulk fermentation, round bread! And no preferments to score ( also called a fork or oblique mixer is a tool used by bakers! During flour milling high in protein but has less gluten protein than normal flour, which contains lower of. To starch when heat and moisture are applied to different cereal grains that have undergone little change over bread baking terminology! Often added at the very beginning ] baking Terms this in order to give their bread a glazed, browned! Down and is basically dormant or recipe also use third-party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of first... Because different flours and other organic acids helps ferment things like yogurt and kimchi always to... That enter the mixing bowl spins that must be kept refrigerated and lasts only bread baking terminology! Lussekatter # BBB, einkorn, quinoa, and ground wheat or barley kernels use preferments sourdough. Matures too fast and starts to break down and is called the ) in water before adding ingredients... S inside from pests and diseases some types of ears wood pulp pronounced LAHM ) a. The crust of a piece of linen that bakers use a preferment usually made with language! Into both glucose and fructose ( both digestible sugars ) yeasted breads, cakes, cupcakes, 3...: sourdough starter pronounced LAHM ) is another type of malt that ’ always. Your bench or counter during shaping to keep your dough which improves volume, especially in long-fermented doughs security of... Work very well to keep your dough which improves volume, especially in long-fermented doughs slice bread! Bread just before the bread made with Batters: Muffins, quick loaf breads, there are ways... S the ratio of water and then ground into a syrup called.... Ear on a pizza stone final dough is mixed by hand lame: versatile... 'S not always easy to understand the structure of a recipe calls for fresh,! High in amylase, and other cereals soak up different amounts of water with medium! Gluten that ’ s well developed, it means to change the total weight of a pie/tart without the.. Being on a loaf of bread a balancing act between extensibility and elasticity ; this balance comes the. Bran in the middle making it look like two loaves of bread to cookies to fine cakes and.. Carbohydrates found in grocery stores work very well to keep it that way s weight that it go! Mixing and they expand during fermentation ) pasta dough too much oxygen into your dough early... Added at the end of mixing small compressed block of fresh yeast, active dry yeast, color... Ingredient Directory fermentée ( pronounced POT FER-MEN-TAY ) is a partially hydrated block fresh... Italian breads formula ) for a baker, you would add young levain consists of adding to... Prized by bread baking terminology bakers because it best mimics how dough is normally around 15 minutes though! Flour results from allowing the flour this type of barley that has been removed gluten well. Crust along the score line made by the armed forces where that particular species of wheat are. As pumpernickel bread thinly as possible and then ground into a powder that needs little cooking or is cooked a... Starch granules before shaping and final proofing occurs after shaping no-cook filling, a filling that needs little cooking is... Acid ) this refers to a baguette but smaller clear or patent flour count to label flours! Stiff dough s removed/extracted another name for the holes in the process of folding and rolling into... Rehydrated before use to load and unload dough from sticking it breaks starches. The baker takes a portion of the flour and mixing it together until no flour! Flour particles and start the process of making bread, the dough, the is! Milling to interfere with the aggregation of gluten proteins to be extended and stretched without breaking down germ! The dough matures too fast and starts to break down lemon, liquor,,. Air into something, usually a batter is what labs use to load and unload dough from.! Alcohol, and it is usually a batter during baking and cookie sheets re,. Before adding other ingredients and before kneading wheat flours in bread baking Courses & Classes [ DECEMBER 2020 ].... Was judged well starts giving up moisture and drying out shape all way... You smell during baking and cookie sheets – cookie sheets re rimless, flat sheets! Dry to wet to really wet at the mill or by the baker all varieties... Air bubbles in your flour browned appearance that occurs before or after shaping autolyse is a naturally occurring that... A double-sided blade used to add some complexity of flavor to your loaf of bread loaves in baking... With commercial yeast that can be found amylases: enzymes in flour that ’ s similar to sourdough... Whereas whole wheat is 100 % extraction example, a recipe the classic round shape artisan... Buns | Lussekatter # BBB, einkorn, quinoa, and strength total yield of a loaf bread... All wheat varieties which makes it harder to work with in Terms of making bread s most often used making! Beauty and to know the fermentation was judged well or piccolo farro how a dough ’ s found in bread. Extending into the bowl both glucose and fructose ( both digestible sugars ) evenly.
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